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| BAR G- t F t I t d_ | Agriculture O re S mM se Cc aA Nn : ars AE I Pil Yar on Forest Disease Conditions ~~ al Intermountain Region a - | : Cee et eae re (Ogden, Utah | 1985 | | Nee = - } BP ~~ Oe | | | be oo . pe ae on ® ae : Salmon ® : ae) cy > eel Te SALMON. | ae ty os | ° Challis®@ TARGHEE Boise CHALLIS : é : ~ 4 SAWTOOTH St. Anthony : | BRIDGER-TETON oise =h oul hie CARIBOU IDAH Orecater é .e we | Twin Falls SAWTOOTH ; HUMBOLDT , ey wYO | WASATCH-CACHE | Elko Salt Lake City @ | ASHLEY ' ee oe e HUMBOLDT Provog ——UINTA Vernal ASHLEY ar NEVADA i NarAue ' : Price ane a pe! : _ MANTILASAL TOIYABE TOIYABE = | a a Rn op oe Rchlieldg ei - feria ys FISHLAKE 3 a | a pe ees MANTI-LASAL ss cedar ciy City a DIME b q _TOIVABE

3-38

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FOREST INSECT AND DISEASE CONDITIONS Intermountain Region

1985

Forest Pest Management State and Private Forestry USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region 324 25th Street Ogden, Utah 84401

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Pesticide Coordinator

| Ogden Field Office 324 25th Street Ogden, Utah 84401 (801) 625-5458 FTS 586-5458

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Subject ee

Resume of ENC aes OTT tere ee eee crete a lake ie elke eee otole olelee oleh ede sce take eee hehe cane 4

Bark beetles IME INTEDMCBDECCE ILC. ccc cect access cwsesees SianereMete wisi srer ere erence ela teiyiatelete stared ste 7 spruce beetle..... Roaierel el sis sa sia sa isi ietereriter starts’ 6 elcid ewivis s°s'e sisieie's sissies se 66 areneneuees Pas ae eg RIGO C Ai, cots leloncteis"el cla’e cieuele cele S’eslelelelélele dadicueb's wae s eae el elee sale = Pine engraver beetle... ..ccceseves afatee ae ste. os sich > clate Sod che eichdte atehehecebenerele etenr's 2

Defoliators Mea ernesUruces DUGWOPMsccsss ccc ees ccsce veces veseseces SEROUS Stoic ele eceld s aie ests s a4 Sugar pine tortrix..cccccscrecreccccvecccceees Diels sletale GHMLa @ shaiy esi sle ere oe males of Fine; butterfly. s.ic.. SParahe alate dhel siete Were tivis stole! ele eine oe BE ry Ls Rar eri oar i ihe 2) Carey o Douglas-fir tussock moth..... eaera nel ehs tala tiers ose e sales eee bs 6 Preere Stith. < stars s Q RGmUWOE I acletels « cles 5 rec ertet ec oolarclerstls Cekesiolectins vv cb esc tives eeevs as 004 in Gypsy moth....... Beatria ce 6: vielett viele ¢/e's se 0474 Sinise cele istetess stenoce ets er eran eet els RCO Summary of insect conditions..... Siete sible sie 6 se cceee Slenetitatereighele oleic She's elelsiene ¢ ae) (Ey

PATHOLOGY

Stem and branch diseases DWArf MISCLECOES. «ccc de csc cscccscserersectes Wide shel Gialeieidis o eiakendicleta tals siele’s terete: ss \] Bee UBPMbDEeLUStcs disc ccc ccc cs ccc ce ccscescccnccevosesessessesscesessessoss {7

Root diseases Annosus root diS€aS€...cccceccvesecescvrces Sidicrelals.¢ sie delete Welaenals iene Sale ee IS, Armillaria roOt diS€aS@..ceecccccccereccceccerceesescerseresseerres Pos PREC Black stain root diSECASE..cccccccrvecccceeereccsssesesesesesesesene waives 1% Schweinitzii butt rot. ccccccccccrccevssesescceveesesccesesesvvsecsssseces |F Tomentosus root diSCASCe ceeveccevererecsresrecrseseeees seentieve erate sare Save crete

Foliage diseases Douglas-fir needle RE IR A icre er che cence sire stels ee Oa eieialste oly claleld so tae ma cecmiat Lodgepole pine needle Cast. seeresececseceesercreceres mletal sie le ehelorele. iste scevarens Aspen foliage GiS€aS€S..ersscccercccccersseccesereesssssssseserers We lore ots 19 Needle rust of pinyon pine...... ejecelete siees sthe Srigeisiarsts Peldere e @slee <eisxssole os 01> iG)

Vascular wilts Dutch Elm diSCASC..cccccccccecrccrvscssesevvssvresesesevessers Metin ee 2D

Nursery diseaseS...scereeeeerecreerees Beata tieetere were iese eter bt ecaee «

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“a RESUME OF CONDITIONS

Tree mortality caused by mountain pine beetle decreased throughout the Region from 3.3 million trees killed in 1984 to 987,000 in 1985. Infestations continued to cause extensive tree mortality on the Ashley, Bridger-Teton, and Wasatch-Cache National Forests.

Mortality caused by spruce beetle increased dramatically on the Payette National Forest. Based on ground surveys an estimated 13,775 trees are

infested. Infestations on the Boise, Bridger-Teton, and Uinta National Forests increased slightly.

Tree mortality caused by Douglas-fir beetle remained static in 1985 with approximately 3,000 trees killed. Majority of the activity was centered on the Bridger-Teton National Forest.

Total area of western spruce budworm activity in the Region increased. Host trees on approximately 2.9 million acres were defoliated. Infestations increased in extent and intensity on the Boise, Bridger-Teton, Caribou, Challis, Sawtooth, and Wasatch-Cache National Forests.

A complex of defoliators including pine needle sheathminer and sugar pine tortix defoliated 56,000 acres of lodgepole pine on the Targhee National Forest.

Leaf spot on aspen caused by Marssonina blight continues to cause severe defoliation on the Targhee, Uinta, and Wasatch-Cache National Forests.

Parasitic infections of Armillaria root disease were found in Utah on mature lodgepole pine killed by mountain pine beetle and also on Englemann spruce killed by spruce beetle.

Black stain root disease of pinyon pine was detected for the first time in Idaho in the Albion Mountains near the Utah border. Areas of infection in pinyon pine were also detected on the Humboldt, Manti-Lasal, and Toiyabe National Forests.

Epidemic incidence of Elytroderma disease was detected on ponderosa pine throughout southern Idaho.

The incidence and severity of larch needlecast on the Boise and Payette National Forests are increasing.

Dwarf mistletoe suppression projects removed infected overstory trees from 4,607 acres on 13 National Forests. | Extensive frost damage was noted on high elevation spruce from Togwotee Pass in Wyoming south to the Aquarius Plateau in southern Utah. | !

Other pests noted were of minor or static occurrences.

ENTOMOL OGY

BARK BEETLES

Mountain Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins

Tree mortality caused by mountain pine beetle declined throughout the Region from 3.3 million trees killed in 1984 to 987,000 trees killed in 1985.

Epidemic populations continue to cause significant tree mortality on the Ashley, Bridger-Teton and Wasatch-Cache National Forests. Although tree mortality on these National Forests has decreased dramatically, significant mortality will continue to occur until most of the pine trees over five inches in diameter have been killed. Virtually all the susceptible host type on these National Forests is infested with mountain pine beetle.

Mountain pine beetle activity decreased in southern Idaho. Approximately 19,000 lodgepole and ponderosa pines were killed. The largest infestations occurred throughout the lodgepole pine type on the Caribou National Forest. Significant infestations were also noted around Deadwood Reservoir and Warm Lake on the Boise National Forest, in the Sawtooth Valley, Warm Springs Creek, and Cassia Division of the Sawtooth National Forest, and in the Squaw Creek and Castle Creek drainages on the Challis National Forest. The infestation in the Castle Creek and Camas Creek vicinity on the Salmon National Forest remained static. Infestations on the Payette and Targhee National Forests declined. On the Payette National Forest mortality was concentrated in the Goose Creek, Lick Creek and Paddy Flat areas. On the Targhee National Forest most activity was noted around Palisades Reservoir.

Specific mortality figures summarized from aerial detection surveys are displayed in table 1, and the status of infestations by state is found in table é. Locations of major infestations throughout the Region are shown in figure 15

Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)

Mortality caused by spruce beetle increased throughout the Region. The most dramatic increase occurred on the Payette National Forest where aerial detection surveys noted over 2,600 Engelmann spruce trees were beetle-killed in 1985. Activity was noted on the McCall, New Meadows and Council Ranger Districts especially in the Bear Creek, Boulder Creek, Elk Meadows, Hazard Lake, Goose Lake, North Fork Payette River and Lick Creek vicinities. Evaluations and suppression activities have been initiated. Ground surveys indicate an estimated 13,775 infested trees. The locations of these Payette National Forest infestations are shown in figure 2. On the Boise National Forest fewer than 100 trees were killed by spruce beetle, however activity increased slightly from 1984.

Infestations on the Bridger-Teton National Forest continued to expand in the LaBarge and Hams Creek areas. On the Uinta National Forest, the number of

a3

beetle killed trees increased slightly in the Mill Hollow area. Aggressive management activities on the Uinta National Forest have been instrumental in minimizing the losses normally associated with a spruce beetle infestation.

meets mortality figures, as noted by aerial detection surveys, are found in able 1.

Douglas-fir Beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins

Group killing of Douglas-fir by the Douglas-fir beetle occurred on the Boise, Bridger-Teton, Payette, Sawtooth, Targhee, and Uinta National Forests. Activity increased in 1985 with 4,400 trees killed. The major area of Mortality occurred in the Greys River drainage on the Bridger-Teton National Forest.

In southern Idaho, the most significant increases in tree mortality were noted in the South Fork Boise River area on the Boise and Sawtooth National Forests and in both Big and Little Elk Creeks and Indian Creek on the Targhee National Forest. Elsewhere infestations were mostly static. Specific mortality figures, as noted by aerial detection surveys, are found in table ve

Pine Engraver Beetle, Ips pini (Say)

Pine engraver beetle activity decreased significantly in 1985 with fewer than 600 ponderosa pines killed in southern Idaho. Mortality was noted in the Boise Basin and Fall Creek drainages on the Boise National Forest and in the Granite Mountain vicinity on the Salmon National Forest. Specific mortality figures, as noted by aerial detection surveys, are found in table 1.

TABLE 1. Number of trees killed by bark beetles in Region 4 during Lee as determined by aerial detection surveys.

Ashley Boise Bridger- Teton 1 Caribou Challis Dixie Fishlake Manti- LaSal Payette Salnon Sawtooth Targhee

Toiyabe

Uinta Wasat papi

TOTAL

Year

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

1985 1984

Mountain Pine Beetle

778,912 2,894, 484

4, 828 14,016

7,943 30, 245

T,995 13, 200

1,170 1,115

112 160

269 | 175

1,090

2,868

381 788

2,691

2,934

483 11,803

513 676

600 139

180, 217 327,539

987, 264 3,299, 466

Trend

Static

Static

Douglas =)

Fir

227 183

2,049 3,099

51

189

W2 28

141 28

48

3,203 3,720

512 904

Spruce Beetle Trend Ips Trend Beetle

RR

35

112 28

14

3, 124 328

Trend

Up

Up

Static

Static

Up

1 Only portions of Forest floam; actual mortality figures are probably considerably higher.

? approximately 13,775 infested trees were estimated in ground surveys.

Ay

TABLE 2. Status of mountain pine beetle infestations by state during 1985.

IDAHO Land Ownership Outbreak Area Number of Trees Class (Thousand Acres) (Thousands) National Forest 17.0 16.6 Other Federal 0.19 0.18 State and Private 1.91 120 TOTAL 19.1 18.6 UTAH National Forest 467.3 RK 939.9 Other Federal Zell 5.6 State and Private . 7.4 15.5 TOTAL 477.4 960.1

WYOMING Other Federal 1.16 0.87 State and Private 0.43 ese

ern ee ES ee TOTAL 10.61 7.94

/IEEEEEEEEEEEEEEETEnET ne nnn

FIGURE 1. Areas infested by mountain pine beetle in Region 4 during 1985

NATIONAL FORESTS

INTERMOUNTAIN REGION

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DEFOLIATORS

Western Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman

Western spruce budworm defoliated Douglas-fir, grand fir, and subalpine fir on 2.9 million acres in the Intermountain Region in 1985. In general, infestations increased in size and intensity throughout the Region (Fig. 3).

Acreage of western spruce budworm activity in southern Idaho and western Wyoming increased over 1984 levels. Douglas-fir, grand fir, and subalpine fir on approximately 2.8 million acres were defoliated in 1985 compared to 2.0 million acres in 1984. Acreage of defoliated trees increased on the Boise,

Bridger-Teton, Caribou, Challis, Payette, and Sawtooth National Forests.

teat Lay acreage on the Salmon and Targhee National Forests remained static Fig. 4).

A general increase in defoliation intensity was detected on all the Forests with infestations. On all the Forests, with the exception of the Salmon and Bridger-Teton National Forests, the acreage of moderate to heavy defoliation increased over 1984 levels (Fig. 4).

In Utah, acreage of western spruce budworm activity decreased from 1984 levels. Conifers on approximately 88,000 acres were defoliated in 1985,

compared to 137,000 acres in 1984. Defoliation intensity generally decreased on all National Forests except the Wasatch-Cache National Forest (Fig. 4).

Acreage infested by National Forest is displayed in table 3, and the status of infestations by state is shown in table 4. Locations of major infestations throughout the Region are identified in figure 5. ;

Sugar Pine Tortrix, Choristoneura lambertiana (Busck); and Pine Needle Sheathminer, Zelleria haimbachi Busck |

These insects continued to defoliate lodgepole pine on the Targhee National Forest. Host trees on over 56,000 acres were infested across the Teton

Mountains, Isolated small areas of defoliation of both lodgepole and ponderosa pines were also noted in other forested regions of Idaho.

Pine Butterfly, Neophasia menapia (Felder & Felder)

As predicted, populations of pine butterfly declined in 1985 to the point that ponderosa pine defoliation was not recorded during aerial detection surveys.

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Douglas-fir Tussock Moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)

No defoliation was noted in southern Idaho during aerial detection surveys.

Pheromone baited detection traps were placed on the Boise, Payette, Sawtooth National Forests, State lands around Bellevue, Idaho, and in the Owyhee

Mountains of southwestern Idaho. Survey results indicate populations are Static to declining.

Armyworm, Spodoptera sp. et

In late July, beds of Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, Jeffrey pine, lodgepole pine, and western larch at Lucky Peak Forest Nursery were invaded by larvae of. armyworms. Larvae were feeding on foliage and were most numerous on Douglas-fir, and Engelmann spruce. Infested beds were successfully sprayed with the insecticide carbaryl to suppress the population.

Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar L.

No gypsy moths were found during detection surveys using pheromone baited

traps. Twenty-seven developed sites were monitored in central and eastern Idaho in cooperation with the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.

TABLE 3. Bore OC Get) tlc a es cer a EC determined by aerial detection surveys.

Defoliation Intensity

Forest (and Adjacent Land) Year Light Moderate Heavy Total Change

Boise 1985 101,236 403, 835 476 , 830 981,901 +195, 544 1984 290, 942 308, 422 186, 933 786, 357

Bridger—Teton 1985 183,517 15,014 0 198,531 ° 421,373 1984 149,718 26, 746 694 177, 158

Caribou* 1985 Az 61,035 124,119 185, 154 +110, 048 1984 8, 875 108, 119 28,112 145, 106

Challis* 1985 46,374 39,951 13,903 100, 227 +99,612 1984 615 ~ = 615

Dixie 1985 4277 9,077 7,750 21, 104 -24,221 1984 2, 124 9,779 9, 422 45,325

Fishlake 1985 10,911 1,364 0 12,275 -19, 754 1984 23, 108 6,659 2,62 32,029

Manti-LaSal - 1985 0 2hte0 0 0 52, 149 1984 38,580 13,569 0 52, 149

Payette 1985 81,195 166, 105 280, 340 527, 640 +63, 864 1984 271,627 133,557 58,592 463,776

Salmon 1985 14, 389 ~~ 14,389 - 981 1984 3, 768 9,753 1, 849 15, 370

Saytooth 1985 25,593 122,994 186,815 335, 402 +190, 893 1984 102,779 31,042 10,688 144, 509

Targhee 1985 55, 446 79, 126 341,061 475,633 -1,333 1984 173, 444 212, 113 91, 409 476, 966 |

Wasatch-Cache* 1985 9,74 28, 133 16, 367 5,226 416,351 | 1984 5, 850 2,025 0 7,875

R-4 TOTALS 1985 532, 664 926,634 1,447, 185 2, 906, 483 4559, 248 1984 1,095,430 861,784 390,021 2,347,235

“Only portions of Forest flown; actual acreage figures are probably considerably higher.

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TABLE 4. Status of western spruce budworm by State during 1985.

IDAHO Land Ownership Outbreak Area Class (Thousand Acres) National Forest 2460.5 Other Federal Ba State and Private 7 156.7

ee ee a TOTAL 2620.3

ee agenesis eerie an

UTAH: National Forest 85.7 Other Federal 0.5 State and Private 1.4 TOTAL 87.6 WYOMING National Forest 184.4 Other Federal 13°39 State and Private Owe TOTAL 198.5

i er

Intensity of visible defoliation by western spruce budworm in Region 4 during 1984 and 1985

FIGURE 3.

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Total Defoliation

N N |

MILLIONS OF ACRES

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SURVEY YEARS

FIGURE 4. Visible defoliation in Region 4 by western spruce budworm as determined

BOISE NF.

aerial detection surveys

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MODERATE DEFOLIATION

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;~ ° FIGURE 5. Areas defoliated by western*spruce budworm im Region 4 during 1985

NATIONAL FORESTS

OF THE

INTERMOUNTAIN REGION

Intermountain Region—Status of insects in southern Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and western Wyoming

Insect Host Location Remarks Armyworm Douglas-fir Idaho Populations defoliated seedlings at Lucky Spodoptera sp. Engelmann spruce Peak Forest Nursery. Jeffrey pine lodgepole pine western larch Douglas-fir beetle Douglas-fir Idaho, Group killing of Douglas-fir occurred on _ Dendroctonus Utah, the Boise, Payette, Saytooth, and Targhee | -pseudot sugae Wyoming National Forests, Idaho; Uinta National Forest, Utah; and Bridger-Teton National Forest Wyoming. Activity increased in 1985 with 4,400 trees killed. The majority of the mortality was on the | Bridger—Teton National Forest. | Douglas-fir tussock moth Douglas-fir Idaho No current defoliation was observed. _ Orgyia psevdotsugata Gypsy moth - Idaho Populations were not detected by lymantria dispar pheromone trapping in 198. Larch casebearer Western larch Idaho Scattered defoliation was observed Coleophora laricella on the Payette National Forest. Mountain pine beetle Lodgepole pine, Idaho, Mountain pine beetle activity decreased Dendroctonus ponderosa pine, Utah, throughout the Region. Tree mortality ponderosae other pines Wyoming declined from 3.3 million in 1984 to 987,000 in 1985. However, epidemic populations continue to cause significant mortality on the Ashley and Wasatch—Cache National Forests, Utah, and the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Pine butterfly Ponderosa pine Idaho Defoliation was not noted, but small Neophasia menapia numbers of adults were observed in ponderosa pine stands. Pine engraver beetle Pines Idaho A significant decrease in activity was Ips pini noted. Fewer than 600 trees were killed on the Boise and Salmon National Forests. Pine needle sheathminer § Lodgepole pine Idaho Infestations of this insect, along

Zelleria haimbachi

with the sugar pine tortrix, were detected

defoliating lodgepole pine on over 56,000 acres of the Targhee National Forest. |

Intermountain Region—Status of insects in southern Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and western Wyoming—Continued

Insect Host Location Remarks Spruce beetle Engelmann Idaho, Mortality increased dramatically on Dendroctonus spruce Utah, the Payette National Forest, Idaho. rfipemis Wyoming Approximately 2,600 infested trees were detected by aerial detection surveys. Based on ground surveys, an estimated 13,775 trees are infested. Infestations on the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, and Uinta National Forest, Utah, continued to incresease slightly. Sugar pine tortrix Pines Idaho This insect, along with the pine needle Choristoneura sheathminer, defoliated lodgepole pine on lanbertiana 56,000 acres of the Targhee National Forest. Elsewhere scattered defoliation | of both lodgepole and ponderosa occured. Western pine beetle Ponderosa pine Idaho, Very few trees were killed by this insect. Dendroctonus Nevada On the Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada, brevicomis significant tree mortality occured in several campgrounds on the Las Vegas Ranger District. Western pineshoot borer Ponderosa pine Idaho Scattered infestations were noted. Eucosma sonomana Western spruce budworm Douglas-fir, Idaho, Conifers on about 2.9 million acres were spruce, Utah, defoliated in the Region in 1985. occidentalis true firs, Wyoming Infestations expanded on the Boise, western larch Caribou, Challis, and Savtooth, National Forests, Idaho; Wasatch-Cache National Forest, Utah; and Bridger~-Teton National Forest, Wyoming. Defoliation remained static on the Payette, Salmon, and Targhee National Forests, Idaho. Western tussock moth Ceanothus, Tdaho Activity was insignificant in 1985. Orgyia yetusta gulosa willows

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PATHOLOGY

STEM AND BRANCH DISEASES

Dwarf Mistletoes, Arceuthobium spp.

Dwarf mistletoe management considerations are being integrated into most plans and silvicultural prescriptions affecting timber management throughout the Region. Concurrently, dwarf mistletoe suppression projects are conducted to "clean up" a diminishing acreage of previously harvested stands in which dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were left and now provide an infection source above established regeneration. The Regional dwarf mistletoe suppression program is a sequential process of pre-suppression survey, evaluation, control, and post-control evaluation. Suppression accomplishments for 1985 are reported in table 5.

TABLE 5. Dwarf mistletoe accomplishments - Region 4, 1985.

Suppression

National Forest Project Acres Ashley 183 Boise 699 Bridger-Teton 200 Caribou j 150 Challis 70 Dixie 825 Fishlake 0 Humboldt 0 Manti-LaSal 100 Payette 272 Salmon 106 Sawtooth 54 Targhee 15729 _ Toiyabe 144 Uinta 0 Wasatch-Cache (he TOTAL 4,607

' Several areas of ponderosa pine infected by this fungus were detected on the | Dixie National Forest. A damage rating system, based on the amount of crown affected and the position of the rust in the crown, was developed in

_ cooperation with Utah State University personnel. This system is being evaluated to determine its utility in assessing growth loss and potential

_ mortality. iB

ROOT DISEASES

Annosus Root Disease, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.

This fungus frequently becomes established in new areas by invading freshly exposed stumps. Seedling-, sapling-, and pole-sized ponderosa and Jeffrey pines throughout their range are often killed by the fungus. Young Douglas-fir are occasionally killed. In true fir and spruce, the fungus is commonly found causing a root and butt rot throughout the Region. While the fungus causes infrequent mortality of these species, infected trees are often killed by secondary bark beetles.

Armillaria Root Disease, Armillaria sp.

In Utah, evidence of parasitic attack by Armillaria sp. was found on mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine on the Wasatch-Cache National Forest. Endemic mountain pine beetle populations infested mature lodgepole pine infected with Armillaria root disease more often than mature, uninfected lodgepole pines. Evidence of parasitic attack by this fungus on mature lodgepole pine was greater in a thinned stand than in an adjacent unthinned stand on the Ashley National Forest. Armillaria sp. was found on mature Engelmann spruce infested with spruce beetle on the Manti-LaSal National Forest. .

While evidence of this fungus may be found throughout southern Idaho, in most instances it seems to function as a weak pathogen or saprophyte.

| Black Stain Root Disease A dark colored stain of roots and butts of dead and dying pinyon pine was noted for the first time in Idaho in the Albion Mountains near Utah. The stain is thought to be caused by a species of Verticicladiella. Identification of the fungus is pending.

Verticicladiella wageneri Kend. has been identified as causing infection centers in pinyon pine stands on the Humboldt, Manti-LaSal, and Toiyabe National Forests. Permanent plots have been established in several of these stands to determine the rate of spread of the fungus and a demonstration of disease control methods is being established in an infected stand on the Manti-LaSal National Forest.

Schweinitzii Butt Rot, Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat.

Schweinitzii butt rot is common in old growth Douglas-fir throughout southern Idaho. The fungus causing the disease is often associated with other root pathogens, primarily Inonotus tomentosus. Detection is largely based on occurrence of the dark-brown sporophores found at the base of infected trees; decay is also detected in windthrown trees or in stumps remaining after harvest.

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Tomentosus Root Disease, Jnonotus tomentosus (Fr.) Gilbn.

The fungus is frequently detected in roots of Douglas-fir throughout southern Idaho and occasionally in subalpine fir in southwestern Idaho. This year the fungus was found killing suppressed Douglas-fir seedlings in Stoddard Creek Campground, Targhee National Forest. Infection appears to originate in very small roots and extends upward into larger roots where it often merges with decay caused by other root pathogens.

Decay by this fungus occurs commonly in Utah spruce stands. The fungus has been found to survive in stumps for up to 20 years. Removal of infected stumps is being evaluated as a control method.

FOLIAGE DISEASES

Douglas-fir Needle Cast, Rhabdocline pseudotsugae syd.

Epidemic levels of Douglas-fir needle cast occurred in Douglas-fir stands in eastern Idaho; most notably in the Centennial Mountains on the Idaho/Montana border. Concurrent heavy defoliation by the western spruce budworm resulted in individual and group mortality of sapling-sized trees beneath budworn- susceptible overstory trees. Elsewhere in southern Idaho the fungus occurred at endemic levels throughout the host type.

In addition to the areas of perennial moderate infection in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area, moderate to heavy infection was observed in many

drainages around Cascade, Idaho.

Aspen Foliage Diseases: Marssonina blight, Marssonina populi (Lib. ) Magn. ;

Septoria leaf spot and canker, Septoria sp-; shoot blight of populars, Venturia macularis (Fr.) Mull. & Arx

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All three of these diseases were found in epidemic status, in addition to aspen leaf miner, infecting aspen foliage on the Targhee National Forest. Marssonina blight caused defoliation of aspen in stands on the Wasatch-Cache and Uinta

National Forests.

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This fungus caused defoliation of singleleaf pinyon pine in several locations: the Quinn and White Pine Divisions of the Humboldt National Forest; House, Kyle, and Macks Canyons on the Toiyabe National Forest; and the Deep Creek Mountains on the Bureau of Land Management administered lands in western Utah. Two-year-old needles were being shed and one-year-old needles contained red-orange colored rust pustules. Only current year needles remain uninfected on many severely infected trees. The widespread distribution of this disease was probably due to abnormally wet conditions occurring over the last two

growing seasons.

VASCULAR WILTS Dutch Elm Disease, Ceratocystis ulmi (Buism.) C. Mor.

The city of Boise, Idaho has a population of about 2,200 elm trees. In 1985, 38 trees succumbed to dutch elm disease. The long range plan for the city is to replace elms with trees requiring less maintenance.

NURSERY DISEASES

Frost Damage

Following an abrupt period of abnormally warm temperatures, a severe late April frost killed the terminal buds of thousands of 2-0 Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, and western larch at the Lucky Peak Forest Nursery near Boise, Idaho. Later evaluations showed many lateral branches had assumed apical dominance.

By late summer, evidence of the prior frost damage was very slight.

ABIOTIC Frost Damage

Several consecutive nights of subfreezing temperatures during shoot elongation in late June caused extensive killing of new growth and reproductive flowers on spruce from Togwotee Pass in western Wyoming to the Aquarius Plateau in southern Utah. Damage was heaviest in an elevational band where development of susceptible tissues coincided with the low temperatures.

Winter Drying

Pine and fir saplings on the Boise, Payette, and Targhee National Forests exhibited symptoms of winter drying. Symptoms included red and dead needles up to about 4 feet above the snow line on south-facing portions of trees. Dead buds were found, but generally only on lateral branches. By mid-summer affected trees appeared normal as most of the red needles had dropped and new foliage masked much of the discoloration and defoliation.

Heat Defoliation Premature loss of older needles on firs, Douglas-fir, spruce, and pines was noted during July and early August, 1985. Discoloration followed by needle drop was attributed to an exceptionally warm period, beginning in April and continuing into August, when temperatures averaged up to five degrees warmer than for similar periods in previous years. Correspondingly, precipitation was

at least 25 percent below normal. Under conditions of extreme heat, it is thought the inner, older needles abcise first because heat radiation is restricted by the surrounding foliage.

Hail Damage

Hail from a severe, localized hailstorm caused branch flagging of sapling-sized ponderosa pine in a plantation about 10 miles northwest of Burgdorf, Idaho on the Payette National Forest. In some trees 30 percent to 50 percent of the branches were flagged.

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Intermountain Region—Status of diseases in southern Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and western Wyoming

STEM AND BRANCH DISEASES Aspen trunk rot Phellinus tremulae

Comandra blister rust Cronartium comandrae

Cytospora canker Valsa sordida

Dasyscypha canker